Temperature Sensor Types

Temperature, as a primary and important environmental parameter, is the temperature vary inside which many chemical reactions and organic processes are optimized, and even the performance of some electronic circuits is managed by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature performs a pivotal position in experimentation and engineering, and a variety of strategies have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific analysis and engineering applications.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose on a temperature sensor?

How to maintain the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring system. It converts warmth (temperature) right into a readable form similar to an electrical sign corresponding to current, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument shut up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic gear

Food and beverage business

Pharmaceutical business

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings by means of an electrical sign. They comprise two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature adjustments. Temperature sensor work is predicated on measuring the voltage throughout the terminals of a diode. As the voltage will increase, the temperature will increase accordingly, at which point there is a decrease in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that must be in direct contact with the thing to be measured in order to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors make the most of totally different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, current, etc.) for temperature measurement, and their changes can replicate the temperature of the thing to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are mostly used in industrial, automotive, and on a daily basis family purposes. Because they’re self-powered, they do not require excitation, have quick response occasions, and can function over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two completely different metal wires wound collectively to supply a voltage change between the 2 metals that’s proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are created from a variety of different materials, allowing temperature sensors to measure completely different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The most commonly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all other thermocouples are also designated using the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, similar to an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance modifications with temperature. They are often made of a polymer or ceramic coated with a glass floor, which is why they’re cheaper and fewer accurate than RTDs. There are two major kinds of thermistors: optimistic temperature coefficient (PTC) and negative temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the most typical sort and are characterized by a lower in resistance as the temperature increases. This is because at greater temperatures, the number of carriers (electrons and holes) in the semiconductor materials increases, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an working vary of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and normal thermistors have an working vary as excessive as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer units with a two-wire methodology with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the principle of measuring temperature by using the property of resistance to alter with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature range. The corresponding temperature can be decided by measuring the resistance.RTDs are normally made from pure metals, especially platinum, which has very good stability and linearity over a large temperature range.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are brief sufficient that resistance doesn’t have an effect on accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration provides an RTD probe to carry the excitation current, thus offering a approach to remove line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate pressure and sense leads. This is the most accurate configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher worth

Long-term stabilityHigher necessities for present sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are usually built-in into built-in circuits (ICs). Two identical diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature modifications. IC sensors have a linear response, but they’ve the lowest temperature sensor accuracy. This is because ICs have the slowest response over a slim temperature vary (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are two kinds of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature utilizing the bodily properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an exterior transistor. The transistor is positioned away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a device that automatically adjusts the temperature, usually based on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the environment. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls below a set point, the thermostat prompts or shuts down heating or cooling equipment to take care of the desired temperature.
There are many forms of thermostats out there, including knob-type, digital, programmable, and smart thermostats to satisfy the needs of various customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical device for measuring temperature that takes advantage of the fact that two totally different metals have totally different coefficients of thermal expansion. When the temperature changes, the two metals within the bimetal increase or contract at different charges. Since the 2 metals are tightly sure together, this difference causes the whole bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is usually made right into a spiral or curved shape. As the temperature modifications, the diploma of bimetal bending modifications, and this alteration can be read directly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object without direct contact with the target floor. They rely on the thermal power radiated by the object to measure temperature, the commonest sort being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the intensity of infrared radiation emitted by a goal object to find out its temperature. They are perfect for use when an object is shifting or the temperature is just too excessive or too low, as they do not need to come into contact with the object itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional picture of the temperature distribution on the floor of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are utilized in a wide variety of commercial and scientific applications, including temperature management of electronic devices, monitoring of chemical reactions, meals high quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of commercial devices

How to decide on a temperature sensor?

Measuring range: Different temperature sensors have totally different measuring ranges. First decide the temperature range that needs to be measured, and select a sensor that can meet this range.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another necessary selection issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor sorts have completely different accuracies. Typically, หลักการทำงานของเกจ์วัดแก๊ส and thermistors have larger accuracies, while thermocouples have decrease accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working environment, similar to humidity, corrosive substances, high strain and other environmental conditions.
Application: Application scenarios require a fast response to temperature modifications, so it may be very important select a sensor with a quick response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are provided with 316 stainless steel rods and internal wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head types can be found in two stem types: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for max thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are ideal for liquid purposes.
How to take care of the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid excessive environments

Record and analyze knowledge

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is dependent upon your application and business, when you have any questions on temperature sensors or need temperature transmitter, be at liberty to contact Apure professional and technical group to supply a solution. We also supply devices for water high quality evaluation, flow meters, level measurement, pressure measurement, ozone turbines and temperature controller.
Extended reading:
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Temperature, as a fundamental and important environmental parameter, is the temperature range inside which many chemical reactions and biological processes are optimized, and even the efficiency of some electronic circuits is controlled by temperature. Therefore, the measurement of temperature plays a pivotal role in experimentation and engineering, and a big selection of methods have been developed for its detection. Overall, temperature measurement and monitoring are key aspects of scientific research and engineering functions.
Table of Contents

What is a temperature sensor?

Temperature Sensor Applications

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Thermocouples

Thermistors

Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Thermostat

Thermometers

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

How to choose a temperature sensor?

How to maintain up the temperature sensor?

Summary

What is a temperature sensor?

A temperature sensor is a temperature measuring device. It converts heat (temperature) into a readable type corresponding to an electrical signal corresponding to present, voltage or resistance.
Measuring instrument close up in industry zone

Temperature Sensor Applications

Industrial

Medical area

Environmental monitoring

Electronic tools

Food and beverage trade

Pharmaceutical industry

How do temperature sensors work?

Temperature sensors take temperature readings via an electrical sign. They include two metals that produce a change in voltage or resistance when the temperature adjustments. Temperature sensor work is based on measuring the voltage across the terminals of a diode. As the voltage increases, the temperature will increase accordingly, at which point there’s a lower in voltage between the terminals and emitter of the transistor.
Temperature Sensor Types

Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Contact Temperature Sensors

A contact temperature sensor is a sensor that have to be in direct contact with the object to be measured so as to measure its temperature. Contact temperature sensors utilize different physical properties (e.g., resistance, voltage, current, and so on.) for temperature measurement, and their modifications can reflect the temperature of the thing to be measured.
Thermocouples

Thermocouple temperature sensors are most commonly utilized in industrial, automotive, and on a daily basis family functions. Because they are self-powered, they don’t require excitation, have fast response occasions, and might function over the widest temperature ranges (-328 to 3182 °F/-200 °C to 1750 °C). A thermocouple is a hoop of two totally different metallic wires wound collectively to produce a voltage change between the 2 metals that’s proportional to the temperature change.
Thermocouples are made from a variety of totally different supplies, permitting temperature sensors to measure completely different temperature ranges and sensitivities. The mostly used thermocouple sensor is the K-type, and all other thermocouples are also designated utilizing the letters (J, R, and T).
Thermistors

A thermistor, much like an RTD, is a resistor whose resistance modifications with temperature. They are usually made of a polymer or ceramic covered with a glass floor, which is why they’re cheaper and fewer correct than RTDs. There are two primary kinds of thermistors: optimistic temperature coefficient (PTC) and unfavorable temperature coefficient (NTC).
Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors are the commonest sort and are characterised by a lower in resistance because the temperature increases. This is as a outcome of at higher temperatures, the variety of carriers (electrons and holes) in the semiconductor materials increases, which lowers the resistance. Glass-encapsulated thermistors have an working vary of -72.four to 482 °F (-50 to 250 °C), and standard thermistors have an working range as high as 302 °F (150 °C).
Apure PCT Thermocouple Temperature Transmitters with RTDs and thermocouples are field-installed temperature transformer models with a two-wire method with non-linear correction circuitry for direct measurement in industrial processes.
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD)

A Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) is a temperature sensor that operates on the precept of measuring temperature by using the property of resistance to vary with temperature. The resistance of a metallic conductor is proportional to its absolute temperature over a given temperature vary. The corresponding temperature may be determined by measuring the resistance.RTDs are normally made of pure metals, particularly platinum, which has superb stability and linearity over a large temperature vary.
RTD Configuration:
Two-wire: Used when lead lengths are brief sufficient that resistance does not affect accuracy.
Three-wire: This configuration adds an RTD probe to hold the excitation present, thus providing a method to eliminate line resistance.
Four-wire: This wire eliminates line resistance by combining separate force and sense leads. This is essentially the most correct configuration.
Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD

AdvantagesDisadvantages

High precisionLow sensitivity

Linear outputHigher value

Long-term stabilityHigher requirements for current sources

Advantages and Disadvantages of RTD Table

Semiconductor Sensors (IC)

Semiconductor-based temperature sensors are normally integrated into integrated circuits (ICs). Two identical diodes with temperature-sensitive voltages monitor temperature modifications. IC sensors have a linear response, but they have the bottom temperature sensor accuracy. This is as a end result of ICs have the slowest response over a slim temperature range (- -70 °C to 150 °C).
There are two kinds of IC:
Local Temperature Sensors: measure temperature utilizing the bodily properties of transistors. They can use analog or digital outputs.
Remote digital temperature sensors: measure the temperature of an exterior transistor. The transistor is located away from the sensor chip.
Thermostat

A thermostat is a tool that mechanically adjusts the temperature, usually based mostly on readings from temperature sensors (such as thermocouples, thermistors, or temperature-sensitive capacitors) that measure the temperature of the environment. When the measured temperature exceeds or falls beneath a set level, the thermostat activates or shuts down heating or cooling gear to maintain the desired temperature.
There are many forms of thermostats available, including knob-type, digital, programmable, and smart thermostats to meet the needs of various customers.
Thermometers

Bimetallic thermometer is a mechanical device for measuring temperature that takes benefit of the reality that two totally different metals have different coefficients of thermal expansion. When the temperature modifications, the two metals in the bimetal broaden or contract at totally different charges. Since the two metals are tightly bound together, this distinction causes the complete bimetal to bend. In thermometers, this bimetal is usually made right into a spiral or curved shape. As the temperature modifications, the diploma of bimetal bending adjustments, and this change can be read directly as a change in temperature.
Bimetal thermometers for temperature measurement

Non-Contact Temperature Sensors

Non-contact temperature sensors are used to measure the temperature of an object without direct contact with the target floor. They rely on the thermal power radiated by the item to measure temperature, the most typical type being infrared (IR) temperature sensors.
Infrared temperature sensors: These sensors measure the intensity of infrared radiation emitted by a goal object to determine its temperature. They are good for use when an object is moving or the temperature is simply too excessive or too low, as they do not want to come into contact with the item itself.
Thermal imaging cameras: Thermal imaging cameras are also infrared sensors that measure and produce a two-dimensional image of the temperature distribution on the surface of an object.
Non-contact temperature sensors are used in all kinds of industrial and scientific purposes, including temperature control of digital units, monitoring of chemical reactions, food quality control, and medical diagnostics.
Non-contact infrared sensors measure the temperature of business instruments

How to choose a temperature sensor?

Measuring vary: Different temperature sensors have totally different measuring ranges. First decide the temperature range that must be measured, and choose a sensor that can meet this vary.
Accuracy: Accuracy is another essential selection issue for temperature sensors. Different sensor varieties have different accuracies. Typically, RTDs and thermistors have higher accuracies, whereas thermocouples have lower accuracies.
Environment: Temperature sensors are affected by their working surroundings, similar to humidity, corrosive substances, high strain and different environmental situations.
Application: Application eventualities require a fast response to temperature adjustments, so you will want to choose a sensor with a quick response time.
Valve stem (sheath): Thermocouples and RTDs are equipped with 316 stainless-steel rods and inside wiring coated with powdered ceramic. Screw head types can be found in two stem types: spring-loaded and welded. The spring-loaded stem is mounted to the underside of the thermocouple sleeve for max thermal sensitivity. Welded stems are perfect for liquid purposes.
How to take care of the temperature sensor?

Periodic Sensor Cleaning

Periodic calibration

Check electrical connections

Avoid extreme environments

Record and analyze knowledge

Summary

Which temperature sensor to make use of is determined by your software and industry, in case you have any questions on temperature sensors or want temperature transmitter, feel free to contact Apure skilled and technical group to offer a solution. We additionally offer devices for water high quality evaluation, circulate meters, level measurement, strain measurement, ozone turbines and temperature controller.
Extended reading:
Dissolved Oxygen Probe How It Works?

Surface Water vs Groundwater

What Is Municipal Water?

Types of degree measurement transmitters

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